Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) is damage to the spinal cord that results in a loss of function such as mobility or feeling. Frequent causes of damage are trauma (motor vehicle, violence, falls, etc.) or medical conditions (multiple sclerosis, spina bifida and surgery). The spinal cord does not have to be severed in order for a loss of function to occur. In fact, in most people with SCI, the spinal cord is intact, but the damage to it results in a loss of functioning. SCI is very different from back injuries such as ruptured disks, spinal stenosis or pinched nerves.

A person can “break their back or neck” yet not sustain a spinal cord injury. If only the bones around the spinal cord, or vertebrae, are damaged, the spinal cord may not be affected. Often when these bones are broken surgery may be required to stabilize the area. This is done to promote healing, decrease pain, prevent edema, and ultimately prevent the possibility of a spinal cord injury occurring as a secondary complication of the fracture.

The spinal cord is the major bundle of nerves that carry impulses to and from the brain to the rest of the body. The brain and the spinal cord constitute the Central Nervous System. Motor and sensory nerves outside the central nervous system constitute the Peripheral Nervous System, and another diffuse system of nerves that control involuntary functions such as blood pressure and temperature regulation are the Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous Systems.

Rings of bone called vertebra surround the spinal cord. These bones constitute the spinal column (back bones). In general, the higher in the spinal column the injury occurs, the more dysfunction a person will experience. The vertebrae are named according to their location. The eight vertebrae in the neck are called the cervical vertebra. The top vertebra is called C-1, the next C-2, and so on. Cervical SCIs usually cause loss of function in the arms and legs, resulting in tertraplegia also called quadriplegia. The twelve vertebrae in the chest are called the thoracic vertebra. The fist thoracic vertebra, T-1, is the vertebra where the top rib attaches. Injuries in the thoracic region usually affect the chest and the legs and result in paraplegia.

The vertebra in the lower back, between the thoracic vertebra, where the ribs attach, and the pelvis (hipbone), are the lumbar vertebra. The sacral vertebra runs from the pelvis to the end of the spinal column. Injuries to the five lumbar vertebra (L-1 through L-5) and similarly to the five sacral vertebra (S-1 through S-5) generally result in some loss of functioning in the hips and legs.

The effects of SCI depend on the type of injury and the level of injury. SCI can be divided into two types of injury-complete and incomplete. A complete injury means there is no function below the level of the injury, no sensation and no voluntary movement. Both sides of the body are equally affected. An incomplete injury means that there is some functioning below the primary level of injury. A person with an incomplete injury may be able to move one limb more than another, may be able to feel parts of the body that cannot be moved, or may have more functioning on one side of the body than the other. With the advances in acute treatment of SCI, incomplete injuries are becoming more common.

The level of injury is very helpful in predicting what parts of the body might be affected by paralysis and loss of function. In incomplete injuries, there will be some variation in the prognoses. Cervical (neck) injuries usually result in tetraplegia. Injuries above the C-4 level may require a ventilator for the person to breathe. C-5 injuries often result in shoulder and biceps control, but no control at the wrist or hand. Individuals with C-7 and T-1 injuries can straighten their arms, but still may have dexterity problems with the hand and fingers.

Injuries at the thoracic level and below result in paraplegia, with the hands not affected. At T1 to T-8, there is most often control of the hands, but poor trunk control, as the result of lack of abdominal muscle control. Lower thoracic injuries (T-9 through T-12) allow for good trunk control and good abdominal muscle control. Sitting balance is very good. Lumbar and sacral injuries, however, yield decreasing control of the hip flexors and legs.

Besides a loss of sensation or motor functioning, individuals with SCI also experience other changes. For example, they may experience dysfunction of the bowel and bladder. Sexual function is frequently affected; men with SCI may have their fertility affected, while fertility in women is generally not affected. Very high injuries (C-1, 2), can result in a loss of many involuntary functions, including the ability to breathe, necessitating breathing aids such as mechanical ventilators or diaphragmatic pacemakers. Other effects of SCI may include low blood pressure, inability to regulate blood pressure effectively, reduced control of body temperature, inability to sweat below the level of injury, and chronic pain.

The number of people living with SCI in the U.S. in 2017 has been estimated to be 285,000, with a range from 245,000 to 353,000 persons. The leading causes of injuries are motor vehicle crashes, falls, violence and sports & recreation. The average age at injury is 42 and 81% are males.

The annual incidence of spinal cord injury (SCI) is approximately 54 cases per million population in the U.S. or approximately 17,000 new SCI cases each year.


Additional information is available at the Spinal Cord Injury Statistical Center:


Currently, there is no cure for SCI. There are many researchers attacking this problem, and there have been many advances in the laboratory. Many of the most exciting advances have resulted in a decrease in damage at the time of injury.

When a spinal cord injury occurs, there is usually swelling of the spinal cord. This may cause changes in virtually every system in the body. After days or weeks, the swelling begins to go down and people may regain some functioning. With many injuries, especially incomplete injuries, the individual may recover some functioning as late as 18 months after the injury. In very rare cases, people with SCI will regain some functioning years after the injury. However, only a very small fraction of individuals sustaining spinal cord injuries recover all functioning.

With assistive devices, such as braces and crutches, some people are able to walk. With gait training and advancing technology such as functional electrical stimulation and robotic exoskeleton systems, some people can stand and take steps. These methods of mobility do not mean that the person will never use a wheelchair. Many people who use braces still find wheelchairs more useful for longer distances. There appears to be therapeutic value allowed by standing or walking briefly, and this may be a reasonable alternative for some people.

For additional information:

Before WWII, most people who sustained SCI died within weeks of their injury due to urinary dysfunction respiratory infection or pressure sores. With the advent of modern antibiotics, modern materials such as plastics and latex, and better procedures for dealing with everyday issues of living with SCI, many people approach the life span of non-disabled individuals. Interestingly, other than the level of injury, the type of rehabilitation facility used is the greatest indicator of long term survival. This illustrated the importance of and the difference made by going to a facility that specializes in SCI. People who use ventilators are at some increased danger of dying from pneumonia or respiratory infection, but modern technology is improving in that area, as well. Pressure sores are another common cause of hospitalization and, if not treated, death.

People with SCI have the same desires as other people. That includes a desire to work and be productive. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) promotes the inclusion of people with SCI in the mainstream society. Of course, people with disabilities may need some changes to make their workplace more accessible, but surveys indicate that the cost of making accommodations to the workplace in 70% of cases is $500 or less.

SCI frequently affects sexual functioning, however, there are many therapies that allow people with SCI to have an active and satisfying sex life. Fertility is frequently affected in men with SCI. Methods similar to those used for non-disabled men with fertility problems have allowed many men with SCI to father their own children. Of course, adoption is another option. The fertility of women with SI may be affected in the first months after injury; however, most women regain the ability to become pregnant after spinal cord injury. Many women with SCI are able to carry babies to full term, but it is important that she consult a physician experienced with SCI.

Hi! A person with SCI is no different from a non-disabled individual except in a few ways. People with SCI have the same hopes, interests, and desires as other people. People with SCI are no different than their non-disabled peers. Although disabled individuals do some things differently than non disabled individuals, the result is the same. It is important to remember that although SCI changes and individual, he/she is still a person, and should be treated as such.